How To Take Digital Photos - Digital Camera Sensors

The sensor in your digital camera uses millions of tiny pixels to create the final shot you are proud of. The exposure phase begins when you press the shutter button (or the shutter button) on your digital camera. Each pixel stores and collects photons into a cavity. After the exposure phase is completed, the so-called ‘photosites’ (or pixels) are closed. This is where your digital camera determines how many photons fall into each cavity. The photons in each cavity are now placed into different intensities. Their precision is determined by the bit depth (0 to 255 for an 8-bit picture).

The Digital Camera Sensor: Light Cavities

However, no cavity can determine how much of each color has been in it. Therefore, the photos I have just described to you would only work on a grayscale basis. Each cavity has a filter that blocks light from entering it in order to create color digital photos. My knowledge is that digital cameras only capture 1 of the three primary colors within each cavity. This usually means that about 2/3 of the light is being lost. This allows your digital camera to estimate the two remaining primary colors.

Bayer array

The most common filter is the “Bayer array.” This filter is composed of rows of red-green and blue-green filters. Because the human eye is more sensitive than red or blue light, each primary color doesn’t receive an equal amount of the total area. Because our eyes are more susceptible to green than to red and blue light, none of the primary colors get equal amounts of the whole area. Your digital photo will be less noisy if you have more detail than the other colors. The green channel is, therefore, less noisy than the primary colors.


Digital photos that are too small to be processed by the digital sensor can sometimes cause the demosaicing algorithm to misinterpret your image, giving it an unrealistic look. Moher(c), pronounced “more-ay”) is the most common artifact. It can appear as repeating patterns or color artifacts or pixels arranged in an unrealistic maze-like pattern.

Digital camera sensors do not have photosites that cover the entire sensor’s surface in the real world. They cover only half of the area needed to house the other components. Each cavity has peaks that direct light to the desired niche. To enhance light-setting abilities, digital cameras have “microlenses” that are placed above each photosite. These lenses work in the same way as funnels, which direct photons to the photosites where they would otherwise go unutilized.

Microlens Array Diagram

Microlenses that improve the photon signal at each site create images with less noise and a longer exposure time. Microlens has been enhanced by digital camera manufacturers to reduce or maintain noise in high-resolution digital cameras. This is despite the fact that they have smaller photosites due to the squeeze of more megapixels into the same area.

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